Carthage was a rich, flourishing Phoenician city-state that intended to dominate the Mediterranean area. The two cities were allies in the times of Pyrrhus, who was a menace to both, but with Rome's hegemony in mainland Italy and the Carthaginian thalassocracythese cities became the two major powers in the Western Mediterranean and their contention over the Mediterranean led to conflict. After the Carthaginian intercession, Messana asked Rome to expel the Carthaginians. Rome entered this war because Syracuse and Messana were too close to the newly conquered Greek cities of Southern Italy and Carthage was now able to make an offensive through Roman territory; along with this, Rome could extend its domain over Sicily.
Carthage was a rich, flourishing Phoenician city-state that intended to dominate the Mediterranean The rise of rome as a civilization. After the Carthaginian intercession, Messana asked Rome to expel the Carthaginians. Rome entered this war because Syracuse and Messana were too close to the newly conquered Greek cities of Southern Italy and Carthage was now able to make an offensive through Roman territory; along with this, Rome could extend its domain over Sicily.
Carthage was a maritime power, and the Roman lack of ships and naval experience would make the path to the victory a long and difficult one for the Roman Republic. Despite this, after more than 20 years of war, Rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed.
Among the reasons for the Second Punic War  was the subsequent war reparations Carthage acquiesced to at the end of the First Punic War. Rome fought this war simultaneously with the First Macedonian War.
The war began with the audacious invasion of Hispania by Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had led operations on Sicily in the First Punic War.
At great cost, Rome had made significant gains: More than a half century after these events, Carthage was humiliated and Rome was no more concerned about the African menace. However, Carthage, after having paid the war indemnity, felt that its commitments and submission to Rome had ceased, a vision not shared by the Roman Senate.
Ambassadors were sent to Carthage, among them was Marcus Porcius Catowho after seeing that Carthage could make a comeback and regain its importance, ended all his speeches, no matter what the subject was, by saying: Carthage resisted well at the first strike, with the participation of all the inhabitants of the city.
However, Carthage could not withstand the attack of Scipio Aemilianuswho entirely destroyed the city and its walls, enslaved and sold all the citizens and gained control of that region, which became the province of Africa.
Thus ended the Punic War period. At this time Rome was a consolidated empire — in the military view — and had no major enemies. Gaius Mariusa Roman general and politician who dramatically reformed the Roman military Foreign dominance led to internal strife. Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence.
The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians.
Marius then started his military reform: At this time, Marius began his quarrel with Lucius Cornelius Sulla: Marius, who wanted to capture Jugurtha, asked Bocchusson-in-law of Jugurtha, to hand him over. As Marius failed, Sulla, a general of Marius at that time, in a dangerous enterprise, went himself to Bocchus and convinced Bocchus to hand Jugurtha over to him.
This was very provocative to Marius, since many of his enemies were encouraging Sulla to oppose Marius. The reformist Marcus Livius Drusus supported their legal process but was assassinated, and the socii revolted against the Romans in the Social War. At one point both consuls were killed; Marius was appointed to command the army together with Lucius Julius Caesar and Sulla.
To consolidate his own power, Sulla conducted a surprising and illegal action: He seized power along with the consul Lucius Cornelius Cinna and killed the other consul, Gnaeus Octaviusachieving his seventh consulship. Sulla after returning from his Eastern campaigns, had a free path to reestablish his own power.
Sulla also held two dictatorships and one more consulship, which began the crisis and decline of Roman Republic. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Political divisions in Rome became identified with two groupings, populares who hoped for the support of the people and optimates the "best", who wanted to maintain exclusive aristocratic control. Sulla overthrew all populist leaders and his constitutional reforms removed powers such as those of the tribune of the plebs that had supported populist approaches.
Meanwhile, social and economic stresses continued to build; Rome had become a metropolis with a super-rich aristocracy, debt-ridden aspirants, and a large proletariat often of impoverished farmers. The latter groups supported the Catilinarian conspiracy — a resounding failure, since the consul Marcus Tullius Cicero quickly arrested and executed the main leaders of the conspiracy.
Onto this turbulent scene emerged Gaius Julius Caesarfrom an aristocratic family of limited wealth. To achieve power, Caesar reconciled the two most powerful men in Rome: He formed them into a new informal alliance including himself, the First Triumvirate "three men".Eastern Rome and the Rise of Islam highlights significant convergences between Early Islam and the Late Ancient world.
It suggests that Islam’s rise is a feature of a common process during which tensions between imperial ambitions and apocalyptic beliefs in Europe and the Middle East cut straight across today’s theological and political. The rise of Rome to dominate the overt politics of Europe, North Africa and the Near East completely from the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD, is the subject of a great deal of analysis by historians, military strategists, political scientists, and .
Age of Empires: The Rise of Rome is an expansion pack for the real-time strategy game Age of Empires. It is based on the rise of the Roman Empire, and adds the Roman Empire and three other playable civilizations to Age of Empires. Nov 15, · Eight Unique Civilizations Choose from one of 8 historical civilizations (more to come!) and guide your civilization from a lone clan into a great power.
Each civilization has its own architecture, unique units, and special advantages. Exploration & Investigation The world of Rise of Civilizations is covered in thick fog/5(K).
Essay: Explain the rise of Civilization and include 3 basic features. A civilization is the starting point of a society. Civilizations have existed for millions of years and are the basic unit of structure for a society.
Civilizations were the base of great societies such as Egypt and Rome. If not. "Civilization" can also refer to the culture of a complex society, not just the society itself. Every society, civilization or not, has a specific set of ideas and customs, and a certain set of manufactures and arts that make it unique.