It was by far the most thorough and accurate census taken since and confirmed that China was a nation of more than 1 billion people, or about one-fifth of the world's population. The census provided demographers with a set of data on China's age-sex structure, fertility and mortality rates, and population density and distribution. Information was also gathered on minority ethnic groups, urban population, and marital status. For the first time since the People's Republic of China was founded, demographers had reliable information on the size and composition of the Chinese work force.
Information was also gathered on minority ethnic groups, urban population, and marital status. The nation began preparing for the census in late Chinese census workers were sent to the United States and Japan to study modern census-taking techniques and automation.
Computers were installed in every provincial-level unit except Tibet and were connected to a central processing system in the Beijing headquarters of the State Statistical Bureau.
Pretests and small scale trial runs were conducted and checked for accuracy between and in twenty-four provincial-level units. Census stations were opened in rural production brigades and urban neighborhoods. Beginning on 1 Julyeach household sent a representative to a census station to be enumerated.
The census required about a month to complete and employed approximately 5 million census takers. The census collected data in nineteen demographic categories relating to individuals and households. The thirteen areas concerning individuals were name, relationship to head of household, sex, age, nationality, registration status, educational level, profession, occupation, status of nonworking persons, marital status, number of children born and still living, and number of births in The six items pertaining to households were type domestic or collectiveserial number, number of persons, number of births innumber of deaths inand number of registered persons absent for more than one year.
Information was gathered in a number of important areas for which previous data were either extremely inaccurate or simply nonexistent, including fertility, marital status, urban population, minority ethnic groups, sex composition, age distribution, and employment and unemployment.
A fundamental anomaly in the statistics was noted by some Western analysts. They pointed out that although the birth and death rates recorded by the census and those recorded through the household registration system were different, the two systems arrived at similar population totals.
The discrepancies in the vital rates were the result of the underreporting of both births and deaths to the authorities under the registration system; families would not report some births because of the one-child policy and would not report some deaths so as to hold on to the rations of the deceased.
Nevertheless, the census was a watershed for both Chinese and world demographics. After an eighteen-year gap, population specialists were given a wealth of reliable, up-to-date figures on which to reconstruct past demographic patterns, measure current population conditions, and predict future population trends.
For example, Chinese and foreign demographers used the census age-sex structure as the base population for forecasting and making assumptions about future fertility trends.
The data on age-specific fertility and mortality rates provided the necessary base-line information for making population projections. The census data also were useful for estimating future manpower potential, consumer needsand utilityenergy, and health-service requirements.
The sudden abundance of demographic data helped population specialists immeasurably in their efforts to estimate world population.
But the liabilities of a large, rapidly growing population soon became apparent. These efforts, however, had little impact on fertility.
After the interval of the Great Leap ForwardChinese leaders again saw rapid population growth as an obstacle to development, and their interest in birth control revived. In the early s, schemes somewhat more muted than during the first campaign, emphasized the virtues of late marriage. Birth control offices were set up in the central government and some provincial-level governments in The second campaign was particularly successful in the cities, where the birth rate was cut in half during the —66 period.
The upheaval of the Cultural Revolution brought the program to a halt, however. In and the party mobilized its resources for a nationwide birth control campaign administered by a group in the State Council.
Committees to oversee birth control activities were established at all administrative levels and in various collective enterprises.
This extensive and seemingly effective network covered both the rural and the urban population. In urban areas public security headquarters included population control sections.
By Mao Zedong was personally identified with the family planning movement, signifying a greater leadership commitment to controlled population growth than ever before.Aug 26, · China’s industrial growth depends on coal, plentiful but polluting, from mines like this one in Shenmu, Shaanxi Province, behind a village store.
One in two PhD students experiences psychological distress; one in three is at risk of a common psychiatric disorder. • The prevalence of mental health problems is higher in PhD students than in the highly educated general population, highly educated employees and higher education students.
The same force of momentum will work in the opposite direction soon. Given current mortality and fertility rates, and with a population age structure that is growing increasingly older, the number of deaths will soon exceed the number of births.
China’s population is likely to peak less than 15 years from now, below a maximum of billion. Oct 04, · In line with its global strategy for health, nutrition, and population, the World Bank Group provides financing, state-of-the-art analysis, and policy advice to help countries expand access to quality, affordable health care; protects people from falling into poverty or worsening poverty due to illness; and promotes investments in all sectors that form the foundation of healthy societies.
China has had a remarkable period of rapid growth shifting from a centrally planned to a market based economy. Today, China is an upper middle-income country that has complex development needs, where the Bank continues to play an important development role.
This book is the first strategic guide for multi-national corporations (MNCs)who are contemplating expanding into both China and India. Gupta and Wang explain how many MNCs view China and India solely from the lens of off-shoring and cost-reduction, and focusing their marketing strategies on only the top % of the population.