The cover says it all: The first track is a gentle intro to the crazy world showed on the following three numbers. Hammill with this not usual quiet voice that will soon range into a growl full with angst on "Arrow" opens the album together with some soft flutes by David Jackson - who is perhaps making his best performance here on both instruments sax and flute played by him. The overall mood of the song is a melancholic one, though.
Recently I came across a couple of studies that were among the first I carried out; some others have been lost and some are in private ownership. The studies which follow are all based on patterns I saw and explored, and I thought it might be useful to place them here for the record.
Unfortunately there is no record of the examples they were taken from, so they will just have to stand as drafting exercises. I should also admit that these sketches are based on the original photographs of the studies, most of the original drawings having been lost — the photographs being the only record I have of them, but which are in too poor condition to be reproduced.
The illustration above, from which the three following details have been taken, is of one of the original drawings I made in the early s. The width shown is around mm of the original.
Although the paper has discoloured slightly with the passage of time, the draftsmanship can still be examined. It is placed here to show something of the concentration that goes into study of this character of geometry as well as the accuracy I tried to maintain in drafting.
Nowadays, drawing with computer programmes, there are still inaccuracies, but they are easier to deal with than when drawing with ink on paper.
At this degree of magnification it is possible to see how the grain of the paper, a smooth cartridge, interacts with the ink from the drafting pen. It is probable that the two pens used here were 0.
You can see there is some blotting at the beginning of lines — look at the red lines top right — as well as a little unevenness in line thickness.
I believe I never went over any lines twice as that had a considerable effect on the outcome. In the central junction the red lines have created a star effect.
Note that it is not as symmetrical as I would have liked. This might have been due to the lines not drying before a new line was added. Finally, this detail of one of the junctions illustrates one of the problems of joining lines at bends in the pattern.
The pens have a circular nib and have to be held approximately vertically. Where there is a change of direction of the line it is difficult to create a sharp corner. Considerable patience was needed in creating these drawings.
This first exercise did not have any construction lines associated with it, as can be seen here. It was carried out to explore the relationship between stars based on ten-point geometry and there must have been construction lines before this was drawn, perhaps just pencilled in as these were all drawn manually rather than with a computer.
I have a vague memory that the origin of the pattern was on an Egyptian patterned door, but it is a fairly common pattern and might have come from a number of sources. This next exercise was carried out in order to explore the construction of a pattern I had noticed as having been drawn with a single, continuous line.
The setting out is easily established, being based on four point geometry, the diagonal lines are all base on joining intersections with themselves and with the horizontal and vertical centering lines.
This type of design is not uncommon, a variety of continuous lines being easily drawn and being suited to a design that interweaves. See the sketch three below.
There are a number of patterns used to produce interlocking tiles, and this is just one of them. Again the basis of the design is four-point geometry set out from the centering horizontal and vertical lines and then just repeated as far as is required.
The underlying pattern does not have to be drawn in as much detail as I have shown, but there was something contemplative about this type of drawing that encouraged me to produce similar over-complex constructions, and that can be seen in many of the sketches on these pages.
This is the last of the sketch studies I recorded and was drawn, again, to establish the construction of the pattern on an Egyptian door. Its head is on the left. As you can see, it is another design based on four-point geometry, but the difference here is that the lines that intersect are not as you might expect them to be, but often meet outside obvious junctions.
Why this should be so is difficult to say, but it is only when you take the trouble to make investigations such as this that you are able to learn something of the workings of the minds of the original designers.
These two sketechs have been added as although they do not belong to the original drawings, I wanted to see how easily the sketch illustration, three above, could be worked up into — in the first instance — a relatively complex interweaving pattern.
I have added a drop shadow to improve the illusion of depth though this would not, of course, be found on a modelled example. Regrettably the sketch is not as symmetrical as it should be, but it does give an indication of how a basic framework may be readily developed into a solid design with the suggestion of a more complex character in its arrangement.
Although there are some advantages to working with a computer, it is unlikely I would have made the same mistake had it been drafted.
It illustrates how readily adaptable these geometric designs might be. That is all there is of those early studies but, having had to reconstruct them quickly, it may well spur me to see how one or more of them might be developed as suggested in the sketch immediately above.
But this may be some way away as there are still a lot of other notes to write… go to top of page Geometric basis of patterns In the context of the notes on this and the preceding page it should be noted that it was with the defeat of the Ummayad empire based in Damascus and the development of the Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad in that a distinct Islamic form of art is said to have developed.
Prior to this, Ummayad buildings such as the Grand Mosque in Damascus, a part of which is shown here, were characterised by the Byzantine style of mosaic work, although geometric designs had been a common feature of ornamental work from the later Roman period. The move from the Byzantine style to one of a more geometric character marked a significant change in applied ornamental designs.BASIC AC ELECTRICAL GENERATORS - 2 - arrangement is normally used for small generators, where the current produced in the BASIC AC ELECTRICAL GENERATORS - 4 - Generator Types Various types of alternating current generators are utilized today; however, they all BASIC AC ELECTRICAL GENERATORS - 7 -.
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This article is the result of more than 15 years of work by me and a small group of like-minded FreeCell enthusiasts. This section discusses various generator arrangements and their suitability for use in the conversion of a traditional windmill.
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7 Possible generator arrangements This section discusses various generator arrangements and their suitability for use in the conversion of a traditional windmill.
The generator arrangement may include a speed-increasing gearbox or belt-drive and/or a power electronic frequency converter.