This energy mainly comes from carbohydrates and fats that we take as food. Carbohydrates are decayed into glucose, glucose is soluble in blood. It is transported by the blood cells to various parts of the body where it reacts with oxygen in a series of steps producing carbon dioxide CO2water H2O and energy.
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Abstract Myofascial pain syndrome is an important health problem. It affects a majority of the general population, impairs mobility, causes pain, and reduces the overall sense of well-being. Underlying this syndrome is the existence of painful taut bands of muscle that contain discrete, hypersensitive foci called myofascial trigger points.
In spite of the significant impact on public health, a clear mechanistic understanding of the disorder does not exist. This is likely due to the complex nature of the disorder which involves the integration of cellular signaling, excitation-contraction coupling, neuromuscular inputs, local circulation, and energy metabolism.
The difficulties are further exacerbated by the lack of an animal model for myofascial pain to test mechanistic hypothesis. In this review, current theories for myofascial pain are presented and their relative strengths and weaknesses are discussed.
Based on new findings linking mechanoactivation of reactive oxygen species signaling to destabilized calcium signaling, we put forth a novel mechanistic hypothesis for the initiation and maintenance of myofascial trigger points. It is hoped that this lays a new foundation for understanding myofascial pain syndrome and how current therapies work, and gives key insights that will lead to the improvement of therapies for its treatment.
Myofascial pain syndrome is collection of the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms that include local and referred pain, decreased range of motion, and weakness. The health impact of myofascial pain can be quite severe as patients with the disorder not only suffer from decreased functional status associated with musculoskeletal pain and loss of function, but also suffer from impaired mood as well as decreased quality of life [ 3 ].
While myofascial pain syndrome is complex in its presentation, the onset and persistence of myofascial pain syndrome are known to be caused by myofascial trigger points [ 4 ]. In patients, myofascial trigger points present as focal areas in muscle that appear stiff and hypercontracted and are painful particularly when palpated.
Despite the causal association of myofascial trigger points with the underlying physiology of myofascial pain syndrome, the mechanisms that induce the onset and maintenance of myofascial trigger points are unknown. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of myofascial trigger points is critical to developing treatments for myofascial pain syndrome.
Critical insights will be gained by research addressing the following questions. Background Myofascial pain syndrome arises from the muscle and is composed of symptoms from the sensory, motor, and autonomic systems [ 5 ]. Myofascial pain syndrome is caused by myofascial trigger points which are identified by palpation as discrete foci of hypercontracted areas within a muscle.
Clinically, myofascial trigger points are defined as active or latent. An active myofascial trigger point is recognized as eliciting spontaneous pain as well as pain, referred pain, and motor or autonomic symptoms on palpation [ 6 ].
These include an impaired range of motion, muscle weakness, and loss of coordination. In fact they may display all the symptoms of an active trigger point to a lesser degree.
For example latent trigger points may have associated autonomic symptoms with pain and their presence results in a limited range of motion, muscle fatigability, and muscle weakness as in the active presentation [ 89 ].
This makes latent trigger points a significant concern also. It is important to distinguish between myofascial pain and neuropathic pain.
While myofascial pain originates at the muscle, neuropathic pain results from an injury to or malfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system [ 10 ].
There are myriad different pain syndromes and chronic pain disorder that fall into the category of neuropathic pain [ 11 ]. Myofascial pain, on the other hand, is thought to originate at the trigger point in the taut band of muscle.
In order to begin to gain mechanistic insights into the mechanisms of myofascial trigger points, it is helpful to consider aspects of skeletal muscle physiology.Task 4 (P4) P4: Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body In your role as a health and social care professional in a respite care home you have been asked to prepare a booklet to explain to your client group how the body requires and uses energy.
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Multicellular organisms may have large numbers of genes and proteins, but a relatively. P4: Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body. In my assignment I am going to be writing about the digestive system and the cardiovascular system.
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